According to this book, the Indus Valley culture and its successors seem to have extended to East Africa 3500 -1100 BCE, and to Western Europe 3000 – 650 BCE, around South Africa. The dating of migrations is based on archaeological and genetic studies, and the genetic data and argumentation of the book has been peer reviewed.

Authors: Pasi Malmi, Risto Isomäki, Tommaso Iorco, Muhammad A. Brohi, and Ranajit Pal 
 372 pages         Format: PDF       ISBN 978-952-69579-6-811


According to Scymnus, Cornelius Nepos, and Strabo, Indians had colonies in Iberia, France, and Germania already 220 – 150 BCE. According to Philostratus, Indians had founded 60 cities in Africa already before 1100 BCE, and according to Juba of Numidia, one of them was located approximately to Equatorial Guinea. This somewhat unreliable historical evidence is supported by genetic studies, according to which human genes flowed from India to Ethiopia around 1886 BCE and to Namibia around 850 BCE. In addition, there was migration from Kenya, South Africa, and Nigeria to Morocco, Iberia and Sicily around 540 BCE. It is also possible, that migrations from India and East Africa towards Western Europe would have occurred much earlier, as Asian bananas were cultivated in East Africa already 3220 BCE (Mindzie et al. 2002), and Asian ivory was imported to Iberia 3500 – 2500 BCE (Schuhmacher 2017). Additional evidence to support the early Indian influence in Western Europe was found from the linguistic similarities between Dravidian, Cameroonian, Basque, Celtic, and Etruscan languages: Even if these similarities do not prove that these languages would have been part of the same language family, they show notable exchange of loan words and grammatical features.

What is curious about this new India-Africa-Europe theory, is that it matches also with Pliny’s description, according to which there once existed the great land of Atlantia in sub-Saharan Africa at the zone from West Africa to Ethiopia. The India-Africa-Europe theory matches also with the African legend concerning King Atlas, who ruled West Africa and whose brother ruled Sicily. Although legends do not provide any reliable evidence for the India-Africa-Europe theory, this theory offers a new, fresh framework for interpreting old Greek texts and artefacts, which tell how the ancestral heroes of the Greek culture came from the coasts of the Oceanus, meaning the sea that circles Eurasia and Africa. Another synonym for Oceanus was the “Sea of Atlas”.

Empirical study

In the empirical part of the book, the India-Africa-Europe theory was compared to the geographic distribution of 22 ancient name sets covering almost 900 ancient names. The results of the study provided some additional evidence for the India-Africa-Europe theory, for example, indicating that the naming culture of the Iberians, Etruscans, and the Sea Peoples came from India (see below):


Pasi Malmi, D.Sc. Finland
Risto Isomäki, M.Sc. Finland
Tommaso Iorco, Translator of Vedic Literature, Italy
Mohammad A. Brohi, D.Sc. Pakistan
Ranajit Pal, D.Sc. India

Pages:  372
ISBN: 978-952-69579-5-1

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